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A sequence of numbers each of which is progressively increased by the same factor, in this case, the factor is 2, is known as a geometric progression.
It can be shown that the sum of all the terms in such a progression is given by:
In your problem, n = 30 (the number of days), so, the total number of cents (S) received for 30-days work would be:
cents. Multiply by 100 to find the number of dollars.
The employee receives $10,737,418.23 for 30-days work.